Presentation of works by an outstanding Odessa artist of the first half of XX century
I am not a hero, but I am a Phoebus' warrior.
I've created the paintings album, and I am pleased with it.
Aristarkh Aristarkhovich Kobtsev (April 6, 1884-February 28, 1961) biographies are included in encyclopedic editions, such as, for example, the Vocabulary of the USSR Academy of Arts edited by O. Volderburg, Encyclopedia of Contemporary Ukraine, biographical researches of Barkovska O.M., Lushchyk S.Z., Golubovsky E.M., and Gridin V.
The name of the artist is included in the Register of Professional Artists of the Russian Empire and the USSR. However, published biographies have a number of omissions inherent in the Soviet period of history. Aristarkh Aristarkhovich Kobtsev was born in the Aristarkh Fedotovich Kobtsev's family, technical specialist of the main railway workshop of the Odessa Railway.
The workshop was a very large enterprise with a staff of 3,000 people. The family had their own house on 12 Smirnovskaya Street (Shota Rustaveli St., Near Mills, Odessa) on a plot of 10 acres. Mother, Maria Georgievna Melnikova, was the daughter of an Odessa merchant, died of a disease in 1887. Aristarkh Kobtsev was the youngest child. He had brothers Vladimir and Emmanuel, and sister Zinaida.
Aristarkh Kobtsev studied at Technical School of the Odessa Railway (today Railway College) in 1898-1901 years. After the school, Kobtsev received a higher artistic education in the years 1901-1905 at Ostromensky Private Art School. The school worked in Odessa in 1900-1908 years. It's alumnus were graduated as teachers with personal nobility and the right to be appealed with title “The Honorable”.
The head of the school was Adolf Ostromensky. He was graduated from the Odessa Art School as the best alumni. Also, he was graduated from St. Petersburg Imperial Academy with the honor medal and the qualification of a class artist. Reviews of a number of artists of that time approve that the school was popular and gave good professional training. Graduates of the school often continued their education outside the borders of the Russian Empire. Majority of school alumni emigrated. Ostromensky emigrated from Russia too. So in the known lists of South Russian artists almost all graduated of this school are absent.
Aristarkh Kobtsev, aged 21 y.o., contrary to the will of his father, married the 18 y.o. daughter of a retired Kazakh, Elena Artemyevna Boyko, on July 20, 1905. Kobtsev left the father's house and rented an apartment not far away — on the street Molchanovskaya, 13 (today Skvortsova, Near Mills). In this apartment he would have been living the life. This move, as it turned out later, was the first fateful decision. There is a certificate from the party committee of the January plant that approved the real estate absence.
Aristarkh's brother, Vladimir, had grown to an imperial official before the revolution and was shot in the 1920s. Brother Emmanuel died of illness in adolescence. Zinaida married the son of the Odessa millionaire merchant Fedor Ivanovich Marcin. Ivan Marcin in 1897 started a second Odessa steam mill, for which he was awarded a medal. Marcin's family had houses in the Far Mills. Fedor also bought the estate and the forest near Saratov. When Kobtsev visited Saratov in 1906, he wrote graphic works “Aunt’s Forest”, “Holobovsky Park” in Saratov. Kobtsev's father died in 1933 at the age of 82 in Odessa.
Two sons were born in the family of Aristarkh — Valentine (in 1907) and Nikolai (in 1909). The younger, Nikolai, had artistic talent, but he died from an illness in 1924. Valentine lived a long life. In 1916, he enrolled in the third Odessa gymnasium and studied there until its closure by the Soviet authorities in mid-1919. Sergey Korolev studied in the same class with him. After the gymnasium, Valentin finished his studies at the Soviet school, graduated, according to tradition, Railway Technical School. During the hard times the railway fed students and gave coal them for heating. Valentin graduated with a technician degree and, according to an accelerated program, also graduated with an engineering degree at the Moscow Institute of Transport Engineers. Valentin was working on the railway and in the 30s he received offer to manage Odessa railway. But Valentin refused the proposition, because several of railway managers were executed. Then there was the World War II, in which he took part from July 1941. Valentin visited Berlin and Japan, graduated with the rank of military railway troops major and was honored by orders and medals. After the war he supervised the recovery of industry in Moldova and was honored with the Order of Lenin. Kobtsev V. A. died in 1999 in Odessa.
Along with his studies, Aristarkh Kobtsev, in order to provide his family and pay for his art school, began working as a draftsman in 1902. The second fateful decision of Kobtsev was in 1910 to get a teacher job of drawing and graphic art at the Railway School with the fulfillment of orders for drawing and design work of the workshop. The imperial educational committee promoted Aristarkh to the next title honored teacher of graphic art at the very beginning of 1917.
After the Socialist revolution of October 1917, his authority and participation in the training of railway workers played an important role. The workshop workers appreciated Kobtsev as a teacher from the folk masses, and a remarkable artist
At the same time, Kobtsev from 1907 to 1918 collaborated with Odessa illustrated magazines and newspapers. He drew caricatures in such Odessa newspapers as “Odessa News” (1907), “Odessa Courier” (1909), “Odessa Thought” (1909), illustrated appendices to the “Odessa Word” (1910), “Odessa News” (1912), such magazines as “Wave” (1910), “Crocodile” (1911-1912), “Bomb” (1917), “Life and Art” (Kiev, 1914), “Figaro” (1918). He graphically designed the cover of the magazine for Jewish children “Spikes” (1913) and the leading St. Petersburg art magazine “Apollo” for 1912, the cover of the first book of the poet Mark Taly “Evening Bowl” (1910).
In the works of E. M. Golubovsky, it was suggested that in 1943 Kobtsev illustrated the cover of a book of poems by Gumilyov published in Odessa, which was banned by Soviet power. The book had an anti-Soviet foreword. Autograph under such work the artist, of course, did not put.
Kobtsev actively participated in the life of the artistic world of Odessa. In 1909 at the age of 25, he was elected into the Association of South Russian Artists (ASRA). ASRA was founded in Odessa in 1890 and was one of the largest art associations in the empire outside Moscow and St. Petersburg. The company cooperated with the Moscow associations “Peredvizhniki” and “World of Art”. Up until 1919, every autumn opened another exhibition of artists, where A. Kobtsev took part. The painters tried to focus on the artistic life of the largest centers of culture — Moscow, St. Petersburg, Paris, Munich. It was facilitated by the availability of subscriptions to German, French and English magazines, art criticism, books on history of arts. There were a lot of journals in the periods 1909-1914 and 1918-1922, for example, in the Kobtsev’s library.
Unfortunately, the situation in Odessa was not too conducive to the prosperity of art. There were a narrow circle of collectors and patrons of art, potential buyers of paintings, the atmosphere of a large commercial city, where business was always preferred to culture. “A man with a spark of God should flee from here — there is no other way out. Until Odessa citizens will learn to cherish their gifted persons, many of them will go to the grave, tired of fighting and suffering. Your place are not here, but in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Paris, Milan, and Florence, where talents are understood and appreciated” wrote the Odessa journalist. Under these conditions, ASRA acquired special importance for artists. It not only helped artists to produce and exhibit works, but, more importantly, contributed to their sales. After all, the majority of artists lived mainly due to professional work and teaching (as, say, K.Kostandi or A.Kobtsev). Almost all Odessa participants in periodic exhibitions were students of the Odessa Art School, which in different years gave a specialized primary, secondary, or higher education. The school at the level of secondary education (since 1900) gave the right to enter the Imperial Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg without examinations. This school attracted students from Jewish families in Odessa and Ukraine, who in different years were up to half of the student contingent.
The undoubted advantage of TURH (or FSRA, ASRA) was the lack of caste isolation, openness to all who wish to take part in exhibitions. Some conservatism in the creative attitude of the masters of the FSRA began to change after the shows in 1909-1910 and 1911 of two famous Salons, organized by the sculptor and painter with Munich education V. Izdebsky. The first salon was shown in Odessa, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Riga. The second, less ambitious, was in Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson. These were exhibitions of contemporary art, at which Odessa's citizens could get acquainted with the latest trends in foreign and domestic art. Many artists from two empire capitals, from Munich and Paris participated Saloons. Since 1909, at first irregularly (1909, 1913, 1914, 1916), alternative exhibitions of young artists have been organized by the FSRA, and since 1917 the Association of Independent Artists (AIA) had officially declared itself, bringing together youth art groups focused on contemporary art and European trends. Without leaving FSRA, in 1917, Kobtsev joined the AIA — member ticket number 16.
In general, the FSRA proved to be tolerant to new aesthetic trends and a number of members of the FSRA took part in the autumn painting exhibition of 1916. In the summer of 1918, the Odessa Association of Fine Arts organized a joint exhibition of FSRA and AIA.
After the establishment of Soviet power in 1920 all the old artists associations were closed and many artists emigrated. Kobtsev joined to the Professional Union of Artists organized in 1920 (member ticket number 173). Kostandi died in 1921 and in honor of him the Kostandi Art Association was founded in 1922. Kobtsev joined to it when the association began to organize exhibitions in 1925 (member ticket number 34). The association was being sharply criticized by Soviet authorities and in 1929 has been dissolved. In the late thirties, the Soviet government greatly increased control of artists creativity. In 1938, the Ukrainian SSR Artists Union (UAU) Congress was held. Also in 1938 Kobtsev was accepted as a member of this union. Because Kobtsev was a respected artist, Odessa artists elected Kobtsev a chairman of Odessa branch painting section. After the de-occupation of Ukraine Kobtsev was elected again to the UAU. It happened on June 26, 1944. And after the unification of all Republican unions into a single Union of Artists of the USSR, in 1960 he received a ticket of a member of this Union.
Membership required systematic participation in exhibitions of these associations. Kobtsev participated in almost all their exhibitions held in Odessa.
In the newspaper “Chervoniy Sichnevets”, November 6, 1940, in the article “Notable People of the Plant”, noted that Kobtsev, in addition to Odessa, took part in exhibitions of paintings in Moscow. In the certificate, issued by the Odessa branch of the Union of Artists of the Ukrainian SSR on 04/12/1960, it is noted that Kobtsev took part in the All-Union and Republican art exhibitions. Also, some of Georgia museums (before the revolution) purchased paintings and those participated in local exhibitions.
From 1944 to 1953 Kobtsev worked at the Odessa art-production workshops. Further Kobtsev retired. Aristarkh Aristarkhovich Kobtsev died in his apartment at Molchanovskaya 13, with his family, February 28, 1961, and was buried in the 49th section of the Odessa Second Christian Cemetery with relatives. Rest in peace ...
The reputation of a teacher from the workers, the support of the workers of the restored plant, the son — an army officer who went through the war, allowed Kobtsev to avoid reprisals after the return of Soviet power, although a number of Odessa artists were repressed. But Kobtsev was no longer allowed to teach.
The artistic heritage of Kobtsev includes more than 1000 works of various genres. Unwillingness to cooperate with the authorities did not nominate Kobtsev to the artists, whose name is widely known in the USSR, but allowed him to live a relatively quiet life (in a remote province by the sea, as Nobel Prize poet I. Brodsky wrote). Before the revolution, the leading Odessa artists perceived Kobtsev as a young talented man. However, his place of work in the Railway workshop school did not allow him to contact with leading painters of Empire capitals, Moscow and St. Petersburg. After the revolution the Soviet authorities liked either servants or dead in time artists. Such people the Soviet authorities easily titled great artists. Kobtsev painting were mostly out of public life after his death because his heritage was not associated with the Soviet ideology and socialist realism. Interest to Kobtsev is reviving in independent Ukraine
Kobtsev’s heritage can be divided into five stages.
The first stage, pre-revolutionary, is represented by wonderful graphic works made with ink. These are landscapes, portraits, Greek mythology and fantasy works. A separate type of creativity is faces of contemporaries. Some works were printed by newspapers and magazines.
The second stage, pre-revolutionary, is associated with the appearance of many color paintings, painted in both watercolor and oil, mostly small format. Oil paintings are distinguished by good colors and a wide variety of styles of performance. Paintings of different genres were painted: portraits, fantasy works, mythology, several landscapes.
Kobtsev did not want to paint leaders portraits and ideological socialist art when the Soviet power was established. Therefore, in the third stage, 1924 to 1941, Kobtsev was mainly a landscape painter. In that period Kobtsev drew also a lot of portraits in pencil. Mostly there were portraits of relatives.
At the fourth stage, the occupation of Odessa, Kobtsev was icon painter. He wrote a lot of original icons. Kobtsev also continued to paint landscapes, portraits of fellow citizens.
Finally, in the fifth, post-war stage, series of canvases were written about the war, partisans, and destruction. These canvases were purchased by Soviet museums. There were, for example, Odessa historical museum (“Fire at the Plant named after January Uprising”, “Battle of Luzanovka during the heroic defense of Odessa”, “Meeting of the headquarters of the partisan detachment of Vladimir A. Molodtsov-Badayev in the catacombs of 1941-1942”, “An uprising of Odessa railway workshops workers in 1903”), Odessa Art Museum (“The North Landscape”), Luhansk Art Museum (“Ours came”) acquired by museums of Georgia, Baltic States and Russia. Many of pictures of pre-revolution stages were taken out Odessa in the period of large-scale emigration.
“At the exhibition of the United Artists Association in 1913 Kobtsev's Beardsley-like graphic works are interesting. His oil works are good. ”
“The exhibition in April 1914, which has a well-executed catalog with articles by V. Kandinsky, M. Simonovich, M. Gershenfeld, V. Nilus and numerous illustrations by Kobtsev, enjoys great success.”
“There is a desire to express the fabulous world in works by Mr. Kobtsev inspired by Roerich and Vrubel. ”
“Too clear succession from all gods demonstrates A. Kobtsev. He exhibited a number of works that are so different in the general tone of the painting, and it is difficult to catch the artist's true face. He tries himself sometimes in transparent bluish-green tonalities, then resorts to sharp and heavy contrasts, goes from the sonority of plein air to the dullness of museum tones. And only his miniatures in iridescent enamel and graphic works, carefully and lovingly finished, remain perfect. Perhaps, the artist's real sympathies are directed towards them”
“He perceives Beardsley through the prism of his faithful follower, namely the Russian graphic artist Feofilaktov. Like the latter, he builds his fantastic landscapes, inhabiting them with images of Greek mythology. To these influences, he also introduces the manner of old engravings. And he uses it very skillfully. It is necessary, as in miniatures, to peer at his pen drawings, and only then the qualities of his work are revealed: calligraphic precision, variety and thoroughness of the stroke. Even in the smallest details, the stroke obediently follows the form, embraces and fills the linear plane.”
“The works of A. Kobtsev mark the transition from impressionistic plein air to museum tones. In graphics, he is a diligent follower of Beardsley.”
“Mr. Kobtsev is making undoubted successes (two landscapes, eight genres and three miniatures). The psyche of this artist is mainly occupied by French painting. Some of the compositions are quite complex and well constructed. The most interesting are his miniatures, where he masters more the general tone and greater harmony in the composition”.
“A.A. Kobtsev exhibited many artistically interesting things. This artist promises to expand on a large scale in the future.”
“Among the Independent Artists people are pay attention to the paintings by Kobtsev. These paintings are interesting in composition and color (“Holiday”, “Over the lake”). His "Pano" is weaker, the heads of the fauns are arranged in one and the same way. ”
“Kobtsev exhibits up to two dozen of large and small canvases. This fertility of the artist is unfavorable reflected in the quality side of his work. The composition is broken, and the colors are too corny. His works look like works by Hans Makart.”
“A. Kobtsev exhibited a lot of things, but all of them are “impersonal”. They do not bear the stamp of deep individuality.”
“Mr. Kobtsev's “Panno” is lightly and joyfully painted. “Pastoral” and “In flowers” are good examples of impressionistic enthusiasm. Notably, in the spirit of good classical precepts, human bodies were written by Mr. Kobtsev, although even here he sometimes goes over the edge and gives too cloying line of body bending.”
“[A. Kobtsev] has a clear artistic personality. His creative aspirations are the search for a picturesque beginning in nature and character. Both are means of recreating a real image. The artistic method of A. Kobtsev is rather the result of an independent reworking of the new Western art, primarily impressionism, as well as the influence of Russian masters affected by impressionism. A. Kobtsev does not limit himself to any one genre. He works on a landscape with equal interest, as on a portrait or a household theme. In his artistic quest, one can see the desire to achieve the most intense sound of color. He achieves brightness and purity of tone. Intensely colored shadows, a bold juxtaposition of cold and warm tones give the landscapes of A. Kobtsev festive elegance and cheerfulness. Their main feeling is optimism.
“The tasks that the artist will have to solve in more depth are the harmonization of tones, the construction of the scale. The detailed development of halftones in order to get rid of the variegation and monotonous warms range of his individual works. In the last works by A. Kobtsev, however, we notice a certain shift towards an increasingly calm and balanced tonality. This indicates the further growth of the artist. A. Kobtsev is also an interesting portrait painter. Depicting only the head in a portrait, he always gives a sharp, accentuated characterization. This characteristic is given by the angularity of the form, the unexpectedness of the movement, the capriciousness of the line drawing the facial features. In his portrait works A. Kobtsev does not fully develop two sides - materiality and volume. I would like to see a more tangible transfer of hair and skin of the face and a more energetic sculpting of the form through light and shadow.”
“Kobtsev's works distinguished themselves by the spirit of searches, the intensity of artistic pursuits.”
In the history of art, it is generally accepted to operate with “first” names that determined the development of artistic practices for centuries. By default, it is assumed that artists did not work in a vacuum, and that the symbolic and technical field of their innovations was being shaped in a professional environment that prepared and made possible this promotion, after all, the readiness of the critics and the public to their perception. But this professional environment itself is often left behind brackets. It is interesting only to specialists such as art critics, collectors or amateur researchers, including local historians.
The presented album of creativity by the Odessa artist Aristarkh Kobtsev is significant not only for specialists but also for the public for many reasons. First, it presents to everybody an interesting visible image of artistic “Odessa that we have lost.”
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
Intensive exhibition activities of entire artistic groups that gave birth, contrary to the opinion of M.F.Freudenberg, public interest to the work of contemporary local artists, understanding of the latest trends in art, ultimately, the development of collecting practices, allowed to remain in the "storms of history", works of a typical representative of the Odessa artistic environment Aristarkh Kobtsev. His creative style is undoubtedly odessish, cultivated by the FSRA, which leads to an impressionistic style with a dense pastiche brushstroke. Not so much light, which is typical for impressionists, but more the heat feels as if trembling "through hidden eyelids" in A. Kobtsev's landscapes, especially on views of the coast, houses and cottages of Fontan and Near Mills, the Black Sea slopes and parks, even the winter landscapes of Odessa.
The same coloristic technique is typical for portraits, especially until the 1920s. The muffled contrast of red and green not only emotionally brings the model closer to the viewer, but also dramatizes the object of contemplation for the public, translating it into an extra-historical, almost timeless space. A human forever - it does not matter, it is the “Minstrel” (#12) or a portrait of the young deceased son Nikolai Kobtsev (#10), allegorically decorative “Ancient” (#4) or “Portrait of an Old Man” (#5), “Youth” (#144) or numerous portraits of his wife (#29-36)!
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
During the time the author’s technique was changing. We can see new motives of Kobtsev’s works that can discern and restore the events of artistic Odessa of the first half of the twentieth century. Since N.Skadovsky, Kuznetsov N., and Kuznetsov D. (co-organizers of the FSRA), V.A. Izdebsky, and Ya.A.Peremen had taken a titanic cultural work to educate not only the public but also Odessa artists on the problems of contemporary fine art, art history, the current trends in Western artistic practice, the artistic environment in Odessa was changed forever.
And A. Kobtsev as a representative of the Odessa artistic tradition combined in his work dense formalism with coloristic expression, sometimes in landscapes approaching the fauvist, and in some works almost to abstraction (“Fantasy Portrait” (#40), “City Fantasy” (#131)). On the one hand he painted a sharp technical innovation, on the other hand he painted bourgeois decorativeness, these were the main interest of the Odessa public at the turn of the 19th - 20th centuries.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
In the artist's work we can find decorative vignettes with stylized portraits of women, almost lubok-style paintings of a fair, a holiday by the sea, merchant families against the background of an “Orthodox” landscape, and a pastoral scene painting with girls and boys in the spirit of A. Watteau, but made in an acutely modernist expressionist color painting technique. Especially revealing in this sense are the delightful watercolors of Aristarkh Kobtsev. Although was not met with one of the ideological inspirers of the ASRA, a teacher of the watercolor school of painting, E.S. Villiers de l'Isle Adan, but almost all ASRA senior members and exhibitors of the Odessa ASRA periodic exhibitions were greatly impressed by the works of this outstanding chamber artist and tried to take at least a few lessons from him. Anyway, in charming watercolors of Aristarkh Kobtsev, an understanding of the features of this technique is felt. An elegant rethinking of classic paintings from Rococo to painting of artists of “World of Arts” (Mir Iskusstva) association, caricatures and advertising sketches, portraits, and especially numerous landscapes demonstrates not only the explicit mastery of these most complex techniques, a firm hand and strong professionalism.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
But also the widest knowledge, “sophistication” in the history of art, allegorical thinking, development of various directions of space formation on the plane. It is interesting to observe how technology is precisely associated with the master with a certain artistic worldview.
A. Kobtsev’s tempera operates with the color structures of the space, emphasizing its materiality and implicit realism. This undoubtedly refers to the early V. Kandinsky, presented at the Salons of V. Izdebsky about sixty works. But Kobtsev’s worldview more refers to V. Kandinsky’s program article "Content and Form." Pastel unfolds various aspects of decoration and color and light correlation. A pencil often mixed with watercolor and gouache explores the reality in its romantic sense. Whether it was an elegiac image of a reading girl, a pastoral look of a hut in steppe or a nude model. The artist reacts sensitively to the peculiarities of the technique, which sets the principles of writing, leads along.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
Understanding the possibilities and limits of oil, tempera, pencil, ink gives an opportunity for a professional game of imitating one technique with another (for example, watercolors imitate oils and vice versa). And this not only reveals the masterful level of A. Kobtsev to the viewer, but also raises a number of questions to the researcher. It is hardly to find a reasonable answer to these questions.
For example, most of the oil paintings that have come down to us were made on plywood, blackboard, or various types of paper (paper, cardboard, and whatman paper). Canvas as a material was rarely used by the master. What caused such a choice? Were there artistic problems or purely economic issues? I can assume that the cause is in possibilities that the material reveals. Works on plywood and paper more often show almost watercolor smears using the technique of liquid oil, sometimes in combination with accentuated pasty glazes. Works in the same technique on canvas are denser, material, the air in them freezes. The fluidity characteristic and the mobility of color layers would have disappeared in Kobtsev's “plywood”.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
The artist’s affiliation with creative associations throughout his life also speaks in favor of a meaningful choice of material. But even since the ASRA, one of the main tasks of such associations was to provide the artist with paint, materials, and tools at a reduced price or even on credit.
A number of works by A. Kobtsev were included in the album have a clearly sketchy character. And this is also a tradition of Odessa collecting. Hence the artistic worldview was formed. The Association of South Russian artists repeatedly organized in the city exhibitions of sketches, which were incredibly popular with the public and traditionally ended with auction sales. As wrote about such event FSRA member artist N.G. Vuchetich “At the exhibition, there was a mass of visitors, and almost all the exhibits were bought very quickly. But these were extremely interesting and were bought at very cheap prices.” An active visit to the exposition indicated the desire of Odessa residents to get acquainted with a new aspect of the artistic creativity of South Russian masters, to expand their knowledge in the field of painting, and also, with due regard for the entrepreneurial atmosphere of Odessa, to acquire as a souvenir, for interior decoration, etc. the work of their favorites, especially since sketches cost was less than paintings.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
The peculiarity of the Odessa school of painting was to paint a sketch in several broad strokes. Artists created an almost flat color spot and a spatial volume especially in landscapes with architectural objects. This peculiarity obliged to the sketches. And this miracle is equally present in the works of K. Kostandi, in the landscapes of A. Kobtsev, and in the works of O. Slishinsky or O. Kotov.
And it is absolutely impossible to leave aside the refined graphics and pencil drawings by Aristarkh Kobtsev. V.Izdebsky, the senior member of the ASRA, noted the professionalism and diversity of the graphic talent of the artist even at the dawn of his work. This was evidenced by the selection works for exhibitions, primarily graphic works. Ink, imitating classical incisal engraving and chiaroscuro, filigree fabulous drawings with a feather (“King-Swan” (#293), a series with satyrs (#292,#294), “Cupid” (#295)), genre paintings, and caricature faces! The artist masterly uses practically all graphics techniques from silhouette drawing to grisaille and blurring. Long-term work as a teacher of drawing and graphic art honed "washing". This is a special technique of architects and draftsmen. Thanks to this technique the volume and gradation of tone from light to dark is “layered-on”. It is especially evident not only in enchanting landscapes but also in the people portraits.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
This part of the album especially attracts attention. But not only the graphics was a manifested skill of Kobtsev. For me, at least, this is a portal to the great hopes of the era of Odessa modernization with beautiful faces of bygone times, naive and demonstrative nudity, acmeist ladies in the shade of trees, singers of cabaret, noble college girls and Odessa opera regulars ...
Cooperation with periodic media and publishing houses, the creation of graphic caricatures made it possible to capture time itself. Urban types, characteristic scenes were captured with a masterful light stroke.
Someone, long-dead Alik, a peasant from Privoz, a fashion-monger in a Parisian hat, a Turk in a fez — these are the images of Odessa modernization epoch, which has passed away forever. And Leo Tolstoy, who proclaimed non-violence, and couples of orphan girls on Mikhailovskaya Square (which has long time ago been built up with houses). The square is between the women's Holy Archangel Michael Monastery and the 3rd men's gymnasium, where the artist's son studied. And the Easter nest with chickens which is the great pencil drawing! Pencil drawings by Aristarkh Kobtsev from this album can be presented in general as a textbook for graphics students.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
All pencil techniques from Italian to pastel and watercolor pencil, independently and in combination, depending on the mood, content, and genre were subject to the master. Virtuoso landscapes, genre and boudoir scenes, mythological sketches and almost lithography of city suburbs put the graphics of this Odessa artist on a par with such representatives, of the local artistic tradition as P.A. Nilus (with his Park Marazli series) and S.Ya.Kishinevsky, with whom he undoubtedly was familiar and quite possibly friendly. This album opens for us not only the opportunity to get acquainted with the works of Aristarkh Kobtsev, but also to visually feel highly professional level of understanding of purely artistic problems, technical problems, on which Odessa artistic tradition is based.
Analysis made by Art Ph.D., professor Ann Missyun
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Until the beginning of the 20th century, there was one university in Odessa — a classical one, which was called the Novorossiysk Imperial University. The name is associated with the fact that the university served the entire Novorossiysk province, which included Black Sea region and Crimea belonging to the empire. There was a conservatory and a military school. Engineering science in Odessa was started by the Odessa Polytechnic Institute, through many reorganizations of which almost all other engineering universities appeared.
Many scientists left their mark on the history of Odessa, some of whom were laureates of the Nobel Prize, State Prizes of the USSR and Ukraine. From them, we will name only those after whom are named streets, educational or scientific institutions in Odessa. These are Nikolai Ivanovich Pirogov (1810-1881), Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (1845-1916), Aleksandr Onufrievich Kovalevsky (1840-1901), Nikolai Fedorovich Gamaleya (1859-1949), Vladimir Aronovich Khavkin (1860-1930), Daniil Kirilovich Zabolotniy (1866-1929), Vladimir Petrovich Filatov (1875-1956), Lyudmila Iosifovna Aleinikova (1923-1981), Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966), Valentin Petrovich Glushko (1908-1989, Moscow), Vasily Gevorkovich Tairov (1859-1938), Georgy Antonovich Gamow (George Gamow, 1904-1968), Alexander Mikhailovich Lyapunov (1857-1918), Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam (1879-1944), Nikolai Dmitrievich Papaleksi (1880-1947), Igor Evgenyevich Tamm (1895-1971), Mark Grigorievich Krein (1907-1989), Georgy Konstantinovich Boreskov (2012), Avenyr Ivanovich Uemov (1928-2012), Prokofy Fomich Garkavy (1908-1984), Anna Mikhailovna Pankratova (1897–1957), Mikhail Alexandrovich Yasinovsky (1899-1972), Vladimir Petrovich Vorobyov (1876–1937), Leonid Konstantinovich Korovitsky (1890), Petr Osipovich Karyshkovsky-Ikar (1921-1988), Igor Petrovich Zelinsky (1933-2002). More than 1200 modern scientists of Odessa are described in the reference book “Scientific Elite of Odessa”, compiled in 2006 by the Southern Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Poets Presented in Odessa
The LITERARY MUSEUM is engaged in the study of the creativity of Odessa writers and poets.
As the poet and literary critic Dmitry Bykov said, there were four literary schools in the history of short-lived Russian literature. There was a Moscow school until about the beginning of the 1830s, then the St. Petersburg cycle of Russian prose began. Then St. Petersburg lost its primacy in Russian literature. It passed to Odessa - the southern version of Petersburg, created by the empire, I am sure, solely counting on future migration. Actually, this is how it happened: the Odessa literary school began with the fact that after 1905 Kuprin moved here, and after 1917 – Bunin.
Museums Are The Keepers Of The History Of Odessa
The theater was opened in 1947 in Lviv, but in 1953 it was transferred to Odessa. The representations about Odessa became the visiting card of the theater. The theater is a discoverer of the genre. The theater's repertoire includes classical operettas, musicals, rock operas, performances for children.
The theater was opened in 1874. On the stage of the Russian Theater in Odessa played the great Sarah Bernard and Eleanor Duse, Benoit Coquelin and Jean Munet-Sully, Maria Savina and Vladimir Davydov, Maria Zankovetskaya and Mark Kropivnitsky... Numerous Russian, Ukrainian, German, French and Italian troupes performed here.
The theater was opened in 1925. The repertoire focuses on works of both national cinematography and world classical drama — from Sophocles, Shakespeare, Hoffman to B. Brecht. The theater pays constant attention to contemporary authors, reflecting the current problems of modernity.
The theater was opened in 1930. Now the Theater is a member of the Association of Children's Theaters of Ukraine and Europe. The repertoire of the theater includes separate productions for preschool and junior schoolchildren, for teenagers, for senior pupils and students, for adult spectators, which meets the concept of family theater. Using classical dramaturgy, the theater does not miss the best works of its contemporaries.
The theater was founded in 1932. In the theater, children for the first time meet with theatrical action prepare for the perception and understanding of “adult theaters”. Talking to a child through a fairy tale, the theater addresses his or her soul. The most important thing is to create performances interesting to our viewers, awakening good feelings in a person — nobility, justice, loyalty, sympathy for those in trouble. The repertoire of the theater includes more than 20 titles of performances, created by works of Ukrainian and foreign authors, different styles and genres, both for children and adults.
The Theater Laboratory was founded in 2010 by graduates of Odessa Theater Lyceum. It is a studio, a laboratory, a theater.
The theater was opened in 2017, when the located underground XIX century building, built by the Italians, was converted into a modern theater venue. The theater is intended to make modern art closer to the Odessa audience and to become a place for a fruitful dialogue between the artist and the audience. By 2020, the theater has created eight theater projects, including five performances for adults and three for family viewing.
The theater has a hall for 500 seats and carries Ukrainian and world culture, creating loud, competitive, financially successful theatrical projects.
It was established in 1991. It is a professional youth theater-studio, wishing to lead a beauty-thirsty audience into the epicenter of the sacred action.
It was founded in 1984. The theater embodies the original material on stage in its own style. It is based on the classical traditions of the Theater Del ARTE, the theater of absurdity, the comedians of the “Great Silent”, European clownishness, the performances of the “Mask” are fireworks of fantasy embodied in the form of pantomime, choreography, drama, tricks, where each actor develops his own unique image.
Summer Drama Theater.
In terms of urban planning, Odessa is a unique city in the Russian Empire, created according to a single urban planning plan by a competent urban planner. When designing the city, the idea of its growth and development was laid, the intention was to amaze with a grandiose scale and create a new center of attraction for those who wanted to move to new lands and realize themselves. For merchants, artisans, merchant and working people for people of different nationalities and cultures, it was decided to create a rectangular system of streets directed from the sea to the center along the shortest distances, as well as grouping around the nodal squares, centers of attraction of residential areas, according to the principle of a metropolis. Simple and clear canons of urban planning, created in antiquity, were carried out. The squares were supposed to be located approximately at equal distances from each other and constitute the centers of administrative and spiritual life, urban culture. Eight such nodal zones were planned, the most important of which was to be the square with the main church of the city. Sobornaya became this square. Other key areas are Severnaya (Greek), Kherson (Novobazarnaya), Volny Market (Starobazarnaya), German.
At the time of the collapse, according to the 1887 census, the Russian Empire had four main cities with special rights and maximum population. These cities are shown in the table.
|Saint Petersburg||1 264 880||1 078 097||16 944||897||16 944||4 926|
|Moscow||1 038 591||967 414||7 979||1 658||15 113||4 568|
|Warsaw||683 692||56 312||219 128||142||386 420||756|
|Odessa||403 815||225 869||138 935||1 562||24 219||1 210|
The composition of the national diasporas reflects the names of a number of Odessa streets: French and Italian boulevards, Greek streets and squares, Jewish, Armenian, Polish, Bolshaya and Malaya Arnautsky and Albanian, Bulgarian, Spanish, Georgian, Ukrainian, Russian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Estonian, Gypsy, Indian, Hungarian, Moldavian village and Moldavian and Bessarabskaya streets, Leinsdorf village (Germans) and Leinsdor street.
Unfortunately, after the collapse of the empire, Odessa was not lucky. There were no remarkable city governors, outstanding figures of science and culture first emigrated to Europe for implementation, and then, after the borders were closed, they moved to Moscow. After Ukraine gained independence, the situation did not radically change, only they began to move to Israel, European countries, the USA, Canada, Australia, where large Odessa diasporas were formed.
The best idea of the architecture of Odessa is given by viewing images of a number of buildings in the city center. It is not for nothing that Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty, was chosen as the patroness of architects and urban planners.
Founded in 1931. The conductor of the Philharmonic Orchestra was such masters as A. Glazunov, A. Gauk, K. Ivanov, K. Zanderling, N. Rakhlin, Yu. Simonov, S. Sondetskis, Yu. Temirkanov, E. Svetlanov; V. Horowitz, E. Gilels, D. Oistrakh, M. Rostropovich, L. Kogan performed with the orchestra. The Philharmonic is located in the historical center of Odessa. Since 1946, it has been housed in one of the most beautiful buildings - the former New Merchant Exchange, erected in 1899 according to the sketch project of the Viennese architect V. I. Prokhaski, revised by the outstanding architect A.I.Bernardazzi in the Italian Gothic style. The wooden ceiling of the hall is made of Lebanese cedar without a single nail, gilded and painted. The walls of the hall are decorated with 6 panels by St. Petersburg artist N. Karazin. The 1000-seat concert hall is one of the best in Europe for its beauty and acoustic qualities.
Followers of Martin Luther work in the Odessa Lutheran Church. It was he who believed that after the Holy Scriptures, the most important thing is music. In the Odessa Kirch there is a German three-story unique instrument of the Steinmeyer firm with a total number of pipes of more than three thousand.
It was founded in 1913 as a conservatory. Has attracted outstanding music teachers from Italy, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, St. Petersburg and Moscow. The Academy is a member of the Association of European Music Academies and Conservatories. The Academy prepares students for specializations: piano, organ; orchestral string instruments (violin, viola, cello, double bass, harp); orchestral wind and percussion instruments (flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, saxophone, French horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, percussion instruments) folk instruments (button accordion, accordion, domra, balalaika, bandura, guitar), choral conducting; musicology, vocals; opera and symphony conducting; composition, musical cultural studies.
Founded in 1897 as a Music School at the Odessa branch of the Imperial Russian Musical Association. Prepares teachers, accompanists for elementary educational institutions, ballet dancers, pop singers, artists and leaders of collectives and institutions of arts and culture in the specializations “Piano”, “Choral conducting”, “Singing”, “Music theory”, “Orchestral string instruments” , “Orchestral wind and percussion instruments”, “Folk instruments”, “Variety”, “Pop vocals”, “Folk song art”, “Choreography”. The contingent of students is about 500 people. Over its more than 100-year history, the educational institution has trained more than 12,000 specialists in almost all branches of music and culture. Many graduates of OUMK made a significant contribution to the development of national culture, glorified Ukrainian art not only in our country, but also far beyond its borders: P. Stolyarsky, J. Zak, E. Gilels, E. Gilels, E. Chavdar, G. Oliynichenko , N. Ogrenich, A. Boyko, L. Shirina and others.
This is the first and only specialized music school for gifted children, opened by the famous violinist-teacher Peter Solomon Stolyarsky in 1933. The school teaches how to play many musical instruments - keyboards, strings, winds and so on. The most demanded in the school are the violin and piano departments. Vocal and conducting are also taught at the school. Nathan Milstein, Samuel Furer, Boris Goldstein, Elizaveta Gilels, Mark Gorenstein and David Oistrakh were pupils of the school. The school building was built in 1938-1939 according to the project of architects F.V. Troupyansky, A.N. Popov, L. L. Dobrovolsky.
There are music educational institutions in which school-age children, in their free time in general education schools, additionally receive basic musical knowledge and skills. There are 15 music schools, scattered across different residential areas. Instruments such as violin, piano, guitar, accordion, and vocals are taught in schools. The term of full education is 5 - 8 years.
The first films in Odessa began to be filmed in 1893 on a camera that was invented and manufactured here. These were the Galloping Horseman and the Spearman. Systematically documentary and educational films began to be filmed in 1910. Before the establishment of the film studio, about 20 films were shot. The organizational form of the feature film studio was formed in 1919. Over 100 years of existence since 1919, the film studio has shot many films in the genres: adventure, drama, detective, crime, historical action, musical, melodrama, comedy, science fiction, war drama.
Annual Film Festival. The goal is to become one of the main film forums in Eastern Europe. The screenings are visited by about 100 thousand viewers, about 4500 guests and 700 representatives of the media from different countries are accredited, the audience of TV broadcasts is about 3 million people, about 85 films from 40 countries are presented in the program. The jury of the international competition program, the national competition program, the competition of European documentaries, the International Federation of Film Press (FIPRESCI), and within the professional section - the jury of pitching and Work in Progress, the jury of the International Federation of Film Clubs FICC, the National Jury of Film Critics, the jury "Ukrainian Laboratory" ... New feature films are selected for the International Competition Program. The European Documentary Competition accepts feature length documentaries that have been produced by companies from all over Europe. Short and full-length films are selected for the Ukrainian national competition program. In addition to the main competition, the festival presents non-competitive sections: the traditional for many film forums program "Festival of Festivals" from the latest hits of world film festivals, exclusive premieres of the most resonant works of cinema - Gala premieres, as well as special screenings, retrospectives, etc. The "Summer Film School" is working: master classes of famous guests of the festival; “Screenwriting Workshop” - seminars for screenwriters who have passed the script competition; School of Film Critics; film market; pitching full-length projects; presentation of films at the Work in Progress stage; Odesa IFF ScripTeast Series Projects and Actor's Workshop series projects competition; video room. The film festival received a distinction from the Hollywood Foreign Press Association.
The first art institution on the territory of modern Ukraine was the Odessa Art School of Drawing, which was subsequently established in the status of an art school, founded on May 30, 1865. For 30 years, solving the problem of the location of the school was the concern of the vice-president of the Odessa Association of Fine Arts F. O. Morandi. Since 1884, the school was subsidized by the Grand Prince Vladimir Alexandrovich. In 1885, its own building was built for the school. In 1899 the school was transformed into an Art School. In 1924 the school was transformed into the Polytechnic of Fine Arts, in 1930 – into the Art Institute, but in 1934 – again a school. Now the school has been transformed into an art college, it prepares specialists in painting, sculpture, decoration and artistic decoration.
The private drawing school of Adolf Ostromensky worked from 1900 to 1917 and enjoyed well-deserved popularity in Odessa, as it provided good professional training. Like the Odessa Art School, the school gave the right to the title of teacher of graphic art, 8 ranks in the table of ranks. Unlike the art school, the school was paid and did not give the right to enter the St. Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts without an examination, so its graduates usually continued their education abroad. A number of artists of the art school taught at the school, in particular, K. Kostandi. The founder of the school, Adolf Adolfovich Ostromensky, studied at the Odessa Art School (1880-1887), the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Received silver medals in 1888, 1889, 1890, and in 1894 - the title of class artist and the right to found educational institutions of painting.
The faculty trains specialists in the following areas: fine arts, decorative arts, restoration, a teacher of fine arts. Particular attention is paid to the study of the theory and practice of drawing, painting, composition, art history.
The institute trains specialists in the following specialties: fine arts, decorative arts, restoration.
CLASSICAL ODESSA THEATERS : OPERA AND BALLET THEATER
The theater with a hall for 800 seats was opened in 1810, less than 20 years after the founding of Odessa (at that time the city had 12.5 thousand people). The opera repertoire included productions by Gioacchino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, Domenico Cimaroza, Gaetano Donizetti and Giuseppe Verdi, with performances by Catherine Amatti, Arriga and Angelica Catalani, Giuseppe Marini, Catherine Patti-Barilli, Josephine and Teresina Brombilla, Ponti del Armi and Alde Bianchi. Alexander Pushkin confessed that the Italian opera in Odessa had “renewed his soul” to him. In 1873 the building of the theater burned down and the theater resumed its work in a new building in 1887. The building was designed by architects Fellner and Helmer in Viennese Baroque style, and the hall in Rococo style. The unique acoustics allow even whispering from the stage to any corner of the hall. The theater was conducted by Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Rachmaninoff, sang Fyodor Chaliapin, Salome Krushelnitskaya, Leonid Sobinov, danced Anna Pavlova and Isadora Duncan. Alexander Pushkin mentions the Odessa Theater in his novel “Eugene Onegin”. The Forbes magazine included the Odessa Theater in the list of the most unusual sights of Eastern Europe.